Cardio Arterio Metabolic Assessment
The Metabolic Syn drome
The metabolic syndrome does not correspond to a disease in itself, but to a set of risk factors: cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hepatic pathologies, cancer.
Although heredity is one of the causes of this syndrome, the vast majority of cases are rather linked to a sedentary lifestyle and a diet rich in calories, poor in nutri-micronutrients, to a depleted microbiota.
While it is more common in men over 50 and women over 60, the Western tendency to be sedentary and overweight means that it affects younger and younger people (children and adolescents).
Obesity can be a risk factor for metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. However, the relationships between body weight and cardio-metabolic risk are not unequivocal.
What are the dosed markers?
Triglycerides are stored in adipocytes. Their blood level is the integrated result of the consumption of fat via diet and hepatic synthesis. Insulin stimulates the synthesis of triglycerides. Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Apolipoproteins are proteins responsible for transporting fats (triglycerides, cholesterol) in the blood. ApoA1 transports HDL and ApoB transports LDL. An ApoB / ApoA ratio is the 2nd risk factor for coronary heart disease after smoking.
Lipoproteins (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and LP (a)) are essential components of our body, they participate in many metabolic pathways. Impaired lipoprotein metabolism can lead to metabolic, cardiac, carbohydrate, endocrine and neurological disorders.
Lp (a) is an independent risk factor for the following pathologies: - Coronary diseases - Cerebrovascular diseases - Arteritis obliterans of the lower limbs - Restenosis after ocular angioplasty
Its risk factor is multiplied in the presence of hyperLDLemia.
ApoC3TG is a protein mainly present on HDL and triglycerides. In the post-prandial period it allows the purification of triglycerides. It is a risk factor for hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis. Its rate is twice as high in people with coronary heart disease.
A high level of ApoC-III associated with TG is an independent cardiovascular RF.
Ferritin is a protein that allows the storage of iron. It regulates the intestinal absorption of iron, has antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties.
CRPus is a protein synthesized by the liver and released into the plasma. It plays a role in the immune system. The more the CRP level is increased, the greater the intensity of the inflammation.
CRPus is the benchmark marker for local and / or generalized inflammation.
The HOMA and QUICKI indices are calculated from plasma insulinemia and blood glucose values measured in a fasting individual.
These indices make it possible to evaluate insulin resistance for HOMA and sensitivity to this hormone for QUICKI and therefore to predict the onset of type 2 diabetes.
Anti-LDL-oxidized antibodies indicate the existence of oxidation of LDL apolipoproteins B and are involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions.
They are 2 times higher in case of Cerebral Vascular Accident.
Glycerol comes from lipolysis (use of fat reserves). It comes mainly from triglycerides. It is produced in excess during insulin resistance and induces damage to the myocardium, produces pro-arrhythmic effects and participates in endothelial dysfunction (by suppression of the vasodilator effect of insulin and by endothelial apoptosis).
IGF-1 is a proinsulin-like hormone. It is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction.
The Erythrocytic Fatty Acids Profile * is the result of the consumption of fats, the assimilation and digestion of fatty acids (FA) and the hepatic synthesis of FA (essentially made from carbohydrates).
The lipids of the omega-6 (ω6) group are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Linoleic acid, a precursor of other Omega 6 fatty acids, is said to be essential because it is essential for the body, which cannot synthesize it. It is found in most vegetable oils, seeds and grains. Are capable of producing derivatives with anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory properties.
Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important compounds in the body. Α-Linolenic acid is said to be essential, which gives great importance to food in its contribution (mainly thanks to oils). Omega 3s allow primary, secondary and tertiary prevention against cardiovascular disease. More specifically, EPA and DHA reduce the risk of sudden death and alpha-linolenic acid also has a role in cardiovascular protection.
The Omega 3 index reflects, in an objective manner, the patient's current consumption of fatty fish and, in the event of a deficit, allows him to guide and monitor him to help him reach the optimal values in terms of prevention of cardiovascular diseases. . The omega 3 index makes it possible to quantify the individual capacity of modulation of these arrhythmogenic elements.
Several large-scale studies on various populations have shown that coronary mortality, whether linked to a fatal infarction or sudden death, is more frequent in subjects with a low omega 3 index, especially below 4%.
Certain trans fatty acids can constitute cardiovascular, pro-inflammatory or insulin resistance RFs. Excess trans-elaidic acid is a risk factor for cardiovascular pathologies by increasing LDL-c and decreasing HDL-c.
TMAO * comes from the hepatic oxidation of trimethylamine, a metabolite produced by the microbiota via transformation of L-carnitine and / or choline. Recent work has shown that TMAO exerts endothelio-toxic activity and could be a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases.
* only for the large cardio metabolic balance