How are your immune defenses?
Do you suffer from any of these conditions?
What is the immune system?
When a foreign element enters your body it is taken over by your immune system.
The immune system works in two phases:
A rapid, undifferentiated phase which should not last more than 5 days: it is the primary, inflammatory response which involves the innate immune system.
A longer phase, specific to the pathogen. It makes it possible to set up a more appropriate response in order to eliminate the agent then to stop the defense and finally to repair the damaged tissues. This is the lymphocyte response.
When there is an imbalance in the quantity of such or such immune agent then the response is not adapted in intensity and time: we will therefore find ourselves in cases of chronic inflammation, allergy, food hypersensitivity, chronic infections.
Sometimes certain specific agents recognize our own cells as foreign elements: this is called autoimmunity.
Immune assessments will be a powerful tool in order to know exactly the different players in the immune response.
This will therefore make it possible to explain the presence of this or that pathology, to offer individualized treatment and to prevent the appearance of certain serious pathologies.
What do we dose?
1. The protein profile
These are the proteins that are made or used to fight inflammation.
These are not the same depending on the duration or type of agent that caused this inflammation.
In the protein profile we find:
Immunoglobulins IgM, IgG, IgA : these are circulating antibodies specializing in the recognition and elimination of bacteria, extracellular viruses, parasites and fungi.
The complement proteins C3 and C4 : the complement represents a set of more than 30 plasma and membrane proteins playing an essential role in the elimination of microorganisms.
Fibronectin has a major role in the maintenance and integrity of connective tissues (fascia of muscles, joints, etc.)
Apolipoproteins ApoA, ApoB, Lp (a) : these are not inflammation proteins as such, but inflammation associated with an excess of these proteins is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Ferritin is a marker of iron reserves mainly in the liver (the vast majority of iron reserves in the body). Ferritin has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties.
Transferrin is a protein that helps transport iron in the body. Produced in the liver, it is capable of limiting the intestinal absorption of iron when the body's needs are met, or on the contrary of capturing iron reserves when necessary. Its dosage thus makes it possible to learn more about iron metabolism (its concentration is inversely proportional to the quantity of serum iron).
Ceruloplasmin is a protein that fights inflammation and extracellular oxidation. To function properly it needs copper.
Haptoglobulin is a marker of vascular inflammation.
A1GP is a high grade marker of inflammation and has a role in immune regulation.
IP is a marker of chronic inflammation of the liver. It also inhibits the enzyme that helps digestion of proteins.
Crp (us) is the marker of invisible chronic inflammation (low grade) or significant localized inflammation (high grade). It allows the cleaning of tissue debris from the inflammatory focus, tissue repair and control of the inflammatory response. It is a marker of bacterial infection and cell necrosis.
A2M is a protein that has a protective role in the liver. Its increase in adults is evidence of active chronic inflammation. In children its increase is a risk factor for allergies.
Albumin and preallulmine are inflammation proteins very sensitive to deficiencies either by insufficient food intake or by excess consumption by inflammation or chronic infection, for example.
2. The lymphotcytic profile (small assessment) or lymphocyte typing (large assessment)
It represents all the agents involved in the defense of the organism. We can compare immune defense like an orchestra: each element must be represented in sufficient quantity (neither too much nor too little) in order to obtain an appropriate response. In the event of an imbalance, the inadequate response will lead to risk factors for pathologies (chronic fatigue, recurrent infections, allergies, autoimmune disease, cancer).
Total lymphocytes : it is the quantity of lymphocytes which will be able to differentiate into more specialized lymphocytes after stimulation.
Intermediate lymphocytes CD4, CD8, T8c, T8s : they send messages in order to stimulate the most suitable effector lymphocytes, regulate the attack against self-cells and intervene directly on target cells which express specific antigens to destroy them by lysis.
The effectors IgG, IgM, IgA, Th1 *, Th2 *, Th17 *, Th22 *, CD25 * (diagram opposite): after stimulation, they act in a specific way (Ig, Th1 *, Th2 *) and inform the entire immune system through messengers. They allow the protection and repair of the mucous membranes (Th9 *, Th17 *, Th22 *) as well as the control of an adapted regulation against the cells of the non-self (CD25 *). These effectors are part of the adaptive response and therefore reflect a situation that has been in place for a little while.
Current activation: Tactives, NK1, NK2, NK3 CD19 : they are agents of the immune system that act in a specific way but very quickly after entering the pathogen. They make it possible to determine the type of infectious agent: intracellular, extracellular, superantigen.
* additional markers present in the complete assessment of immunity and inflammation.