COVID19 type respiratory tropism infection
Prevention - Healing - Recovery
The flu and other viral respiratory infections, which are the most common type of acute respiratory infection, are likely to become a major concern for a long time.
Approaches should be adopted to ensure that the immune system of individuals is well supported, to restore some of the physiological functions involved, which would not yet be, at the end of the disease and to minimize complications related to such diseases. pathologies.
> Nutrition should be at the forefront of these approaches in order to fill deficits or avoid excess.
How can diet benefit the immune system?
A number of vitamins ( A, B6, B12, B9, D and E ) and trace elements ( zinc, copper, selenium, iron ) have been shown to be key roles in supporting the human immune system and reducing blood loss. risk of infections: zinc and selenium seem to be particularly important for the latter.
An excessive inflammatory response can lead to deficiencies in acquired immunity. There is some evidence that the cytokine storm can be controlled by omega3 fatty acids .
The intestinal lining is the largest site of immune tissue in humans.
The gut microbiota plays a role in the education and regulation of the immune system. Gut dysbiosis is a hallmark of the disease, including many infectious diseases, and has been described in COVID-19.
Your good intestinal bacteria are also capable of creating real drugs ( metabolome ), such as butyrate , and of synthesizing certain vitamins that are essential for your defenses.
Dietary approaches to achieve a healthy microbiota can also benefit the immune system.
The essential COVID report
SOD and GPX : two antioxidant enzymes: if their value is high, you are in oxidative stress. It must be terminated in order to avoid further damage.
SELENIUM : its insufficiency:
Decreases: the production of antibodies, the number of killer cells
Increases susceptibility to infections and mycobacterial disease.
Poor selenium status could lead to the emergence of more pathogenic strains of the virus, thereby increasing the risks and burdens associated with viral infection.
COPPER : Copper is an antimicrobial and it supports the function of the rapid immune response (or innate immunity).
ZINC : Zinc plays a key role in host defense against RNA viruses by inhibiting the rn polymerase required by RNA viruses, such as coronaviruses, to replicate.
Zinc deficiency impairs many aspects of innate immunity. There are also marked effects of zinc deficiency on acquired immunity.
Zinc supports the proliferation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, key cells in antiviral defense.
It is also an essential cofactor for antioxidant enzymes and is involved in the loss of taste and smell.
COVID nutritional assessment: Zinc + Selenium
FERRITIN : its induced insufficiency
thymus atrophy, reducing the production of naive T.
weakening of innate and acquired immune responses.
increase susceptibility to infection.
But excess iron promotes damaging inflammation, and microorganisms need iron. Too much iron can promote the growth of the pathogen.
Vitamin A : important for the barrier function and for the maturation and function of immune cells, especially innate.
Vitamin A deficiency may interfere with the response to vaccination
Group B vitamins
B vitamins are involved in the regulation of the intestinal immune system, thus contributing to the function of the intestinal barrier.
Vitamins B6, B9 and B12 also support the activity of killer cells and cytotoxic T8 lymphocytes: effects which are believed to be important in antiviral defense.
Improves the integrity of epithelial barriers (lungs, intestines) and induces the synthesis of antimicrobial and immune molecules, directly improving host defense.
Improves the efficiency of the adaptive response (vaccine) by promoting antigen presentation.
Seems to increase the number of regulatory T lymphocytes for the control of the immune response.
Prevents the multiplication of infected cells by inhibiting the Renin Angiotensin system. This is because SARS-CoV-2 requires the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor to enter cells.
People with low vitamin D status have a higher risk of viral respiratory tract infections.
The lower seroprotection rates for influenza A virus and influenza B virus in people deficient in vitamin D.
vitamin E deficiency decreases:
The proliferation of lymphocytes,
The natural activity of killer cells and the elimination of infected cells.
The specific production of antibodies after vaccination.
Vitamin E promotes the adaptive immune response (vaccination).
Fatty acids : Omega fatty acids Epa and DHA have anti-inflammatory properties. The administration of n-3 fatty acids led to reductions in the duration of mechanical ventilation and the duration of the intensive care unit stay, as well as improved oxygenation.
It appears that patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome can be treated favorably with n-3 fatty acids, which work to reduce inflammation and the cytokine storm.
Nutritional covid assessment + AGCC: butyrate, acetate, propionate, valerate
The discoveries of new biomarkers linked to respiratory viral infections repeatedly report deficits in certain metabolites from the intestinal microbiota, in particular short-chain fatty acids (SCFA).
SCFAs resulting from the transformation by the microbiota of fermentable carbohydrates are able to release monocytes-patrollers from their hibernation in the marrow to immediately attract them into the lungs, all this to protect and repair the suffering lung tissue. They also accelerate the maturation and proliferation of cells capable of eliminating lung viruses and reducing lung damage.
SCFAs have therefore been mainly associated with the regulation of the immune system and the prevention of exacerbated inflammation.
SCFAs are not limited to the gastrointestinal tract, but can diffuse through the bloodstream, and influence cells in peripheral tissues.
Propionate promotes hematopoiesis of dendritic cell precursors in the bone marrow.
In the event of a deficit in acetate production, supplementation corrects the sensitivity to pulmonary bacterial superinfection.
Butyrate prints an anti-inflammatory and antibacterial program; the whole leading to an improved barrier function.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics cause butyrate deficiency, a dysfunction of the immune system usually sensitized by butyrate.
Restoration of the antibacterial function of macrophages via butyrate may constitute a universal mechanism for preventing or treating chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes.
Nutritional assessment + AGCC + Intestinal Microbiota
The gut microbiota is a modulator of the immune response and plays an important role in immune-mediated diseases.
The healthy , rich microbiota is able to create a barrier that will prevent the start of replication of the virus in the pulmonary epithelium and allow time for the immune system to specialize to fight effectively against the virus.
The depletion of intestinal bacterial diversity leads to a veritable inflammatory storm causing respiratory distress syndrome and possible failure of certain organs.
Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota would also contribute to increased mucosal permeability which would lead to microbial translocation and a second infection.
For example, it was found in deceased patients that the proportion of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Eubacterium was reduced, and that of pathogenic bacteria, such as Corynebacterium from Actinobacteria and Ruthenibacterium from Firmicutes was increased.
In addition, all viral or microbial infections lead to a depletion of the intestinal microbiota, thus increasing the vulnerability to future infections.
Finally, it has been shown that a depleted microbiota reduces or even cancels vaccine efficacy.
It is essential to know the state of your microbiota in order to prevent, cure and restore viral infections with respiratory tropism.
The transition from a sick microbiota to a healthy microbiota requires specific and individual dietary advice.
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